Record of 489 Division I women’s track and field student-athletes honored for achievements in athletics, academics

NEW ORLEANS – Student-athletes are forever working to balance the competing challenges of school and sports. With four 2008 national titles, two third-place finishes, and an American collegiate record between them, four Division I student-athletes showed that they know what it takes to achieve success in athletics and in academics. Lisa Koll of Iowa State, Sarah Stevens of Arizona State, Sarah Bowman of Tennessee, and Ellie Rudy of Montana State led the way as the U.S. Track & Field and Cross Country Coaches Association announced on Tuesday the 2008 Women’s Division I Indoor and Outdoor Scholar Athletes of the Year.


A Fort Dodge, Ia. native, Koll earned the 2008 Division I Outdoor Track Scholar Athlete of the Year award after a record-breaking outdoor season. Koll’s breakthrough 2008 season in the 10,000-meter run included both an NCAA Outdoor title and an American collegiate record in her specialty event. Koll also competed at the 2008 U.S. Olympic Team Trials, finishing eighth in a race in which she was the only amateur competitor. A biology major at Iowa State, Koll compiled a near-perfect 3.98 cumulative GPA, graduating in just three years. She has been accepted into Iowa State’s school of Veterinary Medicine and will begin graduate studies in the fall.

“Running and academics go together well. They both demand dedication. Motivation is key because you have to go out on that run, or study for that test whether you want to or not,” said Koll. “I’m really honored to be recognized because there are so many track and field student-athletes who are great competitors and great students.”

Arizona State’s Stevens is the 2008 Division I Outdoor Field Scholar Athlete of the Year after winning the 2008 NCAA Division I Outdoor Track and Field title in the shot put. The junior from Fort Collins, Co. also finished third in the hammer and sixth in the shot put at the 2008 NCAA Division I Outdoor Track and Field Championships, contributing a total of 19 points to the Sun Devils’ second-place team finish. A kinesiology major at Arizona State, Stevens holds a 3.46 cumulative GPA.

“I would argue that during my tenure at Arizona State University that Sarah Stevens has been our most complete student-athlete,” said Sun Devils head coach Greg Kraft. “Obviously this award speaks to Sarah’s academic prowess, but Sarah has also been the president of ASU’s Student-Athlete Advisory Council while on the track leading our team to three National Championships. Sarah’s commitment to Sun Devil athletics has been truly awesome.”


The 2008 USTFCCCA Indoor Track Scholar Athlete of the Year, Tennessee’s Bowman had a busy weekend at the 2008 NCAA Division I Indoor Championships in March. On Friday, she anchored the Tennessee Lady Vols distance medley relay to a national title, and she followed that performance with a third-place finish in the mile on Saturday. Her efforts helped Tennessee to a tie for eighth place in the overall team standings. Bowman, a junior from Warrenton, Va., boasts a 3.85 cumulative GPA in human resource management.

“When you talk about the complete package, from the standpoint of athletics and academics and being a good person on top of that, Sarah Bowman definitely comes to my mind. Sarah’s success in both areas sets a good example and reinforces the idea that you can be a great student and an outstanding athlete at the same time,” said Lady Vols head coach J.J. Clark. “If you decide to work at it and work hard, you can definitely do both.”

Montana State’s Rudy, a native of Woodland Park, Co., has been named the 2008 Division I Indoor Field Scholar Athlete of the Year. Rudy won the 2008 NCAA Division I Indoor title in the pole vault to earn her second consecutive indoor national title. She is the only female track and field athlete in Bobcat history to win an NCAA championship. Only a junior, Rudy is a cell biology – neuroscience major with a 3.41 cumulative GPA.

“Ellie is a young lady that positively represents Montana State in so many ways, not just athletically but academically and in our community. She is very involved in the community and on campus, and her athletic achievements speak for themselves,” said Bobcat head coach Dale Kennedy. “This is a great honor for a very deserving young lady, and also a great honor for our program.”


In addition to the Scholar Athletes of the Year, the USTFCCCA also announced the women’s 2008 Division I All-Academic Track and Field team. A record total of 489 student-athletes representing 143 Division I institutions composed the women’s 2008 All-Academic team.

The University of Minnesota led all instituions with 17 student-athletes on the All-Academic team. Rice University and the University of Wisconsin followed with 13 student-athletes each on the All-Academic team, and Arkansas and Oregon each placed 12 student-athletes on the team. Nebraska placed 11 student-athletes on the team.

The USTFCCCA honors Division I individuals for their academic and athletic achievements during the indoor and outdoor track and field seasons.

To qualify for the USTFCCCA All-Academic Track and Field Team, the student-athlete must have compiled a cumulative grade point average of 3.25 and have met either the NCAA Division I Indoor automatic or provisional qualifying standard or the NCAA Division I Outdoor regional or national qualifying standard in their respective event.

The 2008 USTFCCCA Division I Women’s All-Academic Track and Field Team

Name Institution
Carrie Kayes University of Akron
Larisa Arcip University of Akron
Allison Lawyer University of Akron
Kimberly Lorentz University of Akron
Jessica Miller-Hafner University of Akron
Cassandra Schenck University of Akron
Valerie Wert University of Akron
Erika Russ University of Alabama at Birmingham
Jacinta Scruggs University of Alabama at Birmingham
Nicole Okolo University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa
Betty Rotich University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa
Laura Cummings University at Albany
Arina Gerasimova University at Albany
Jennifer Gurrant University at Albany
Leigh Bernstein University of Arizona
Ashley Gadson University of Arizona
Jackie Perryman University of Arizona
Christina Rodgers University of Arizona
Jacquelyn Johnson Arizona State University
Ali Kielty Arizona State University
Jenna Kingma Arizona State University
April Kubishta Arizona State University
Dominique’ Maloy Arizona State University
Lissa Regets Arizona State University
Angela Spadafino Arizona State University
Sarah Stevens Arizona State University
Alana Waterford Arizona State University
Denise Bargiachi University of Arkansas, Fayetteville
Dacia Barr University of Arkansas, Fayetteville
Tara Diebold University of Arkansas, Fayetteville
Megan Jackson University of Arkansas, Fayetteville
Kristen Keith University of Arkansas, Fayetteville
Sarah Landau University of Arkansas, Fayetteville
Caroline Peyton University of Arkansas, Fayetteville
Tiffany Redlarczyk University of Arkansas, Fayetteville
Michelle Rossio University of Arkansas, Fayetteville
Katie Stripling University of Arkansas, Fayetteville
Miranda Walker University of Arkansas, Fayetteville
Catherine White University of Arkansas, Fayetteville
Holly Knight Auburn University
Katalin Mate Auburn University
Carrie Burggraf Austin Peay State University
Amanda Barnhart Ball State University
Alison Bishel Ball State University
Erin Bedell Baylor University
Lyndsy Bedell Baylor University
Danielle Bradley Baylor University
Brittany Bruce Baylor University
Brittany Devereaux Baylor University
Carla Grace Baylor University
Lauren Hagans Baylor University
Nichole Jones Baylor University
Kaleigh Teel Baylor University
Kayleen McDowell Boise State University
Megan Olivetti Boise State University
Jessica Driscoll Boston College
Samantha Gawrych Boston College
Mary Heitkamp Boston College
Nichole Lister Boston College
Piret Kuresson Brigham Young University
Sandra Mazan Brigham Young University
Angela Petersen Brigham Young University
Carlee Platt Brigham Young University
Carolyn Quebe Brigham Young University
Nicole Rasmussen Brigham Young University
Stacy Slight Brigham Young University
Angela Wagner Brigham Young University
Samantha Adelberg Brown University
Nicole Burns Brown University
Smita Gupta Brown University
Amanda Mockbee Bucknell University
Beverly Rogers Bucknell University
Tiffany Maskulinski University at Buffalo
Kathryn Weston University at Buffalo
Genni Gardner Butler University
Rachel Gibbs Butler University
Claire Holme Butler University
Kayla Dixon University of California, Berkeley
Cyrena Giordano University of California, Berkeley
Kristen Meister University of California, Berkeley
Theresa Raub University of California, Berkeley
Francesca Weems University of California, Berkeley
Kaitlin Gregg University of California, Davis
Tori Anthony University of California, Los Angeles
Megan Jamerson University of California, Los Angeles
Bethany Nickless University of California, Santa Barbara
Sarah Savage California State University, Fresno
Roxanne Sellick California State University, Fresno
Grace Wiesmann California State University, Fresno
Sherrina Lofton California State University, Northridge
Krystal Quinn California State University, Northridge
Ifeoma Agwuenu California State University, Sacramento
Ashley Ast California State University, Sacramento
Morinsola Keshinro California State University, Sacramento
Lori Vaught California State University, Sacramento
Ericka Violett California State University, Sacramento
Dionne Gibson Charleston Southern University
Brittany Klima University of Cincinnati
Jennifer Barringer University of Colorado, Boulder
Sara Vaughn University of Colorado, Boulder
Janay DeLoach Colorado State University
Kristen Hemphill Colorado State University
Tanesha Johnson Colorado State University
Katie Lloyd Colorado State University
Stacey Poulos Colorado State University
Shelby Leland Columbia University
Stephanie Lenihan Columbia University
Alyssa Evering University of Connecticut
Phylicia George University of Connecticut
Joan Casey Cornell University
Caroline Heidt Cornell University
Stephanie Pancoast Cornell University
Erin Roberts Cornell University
Cassilyn Schweighofer Cornell University
Mary Cate Quiett DePaul University
Amanda Smith University of Detroit Mercy
Madeline McKeever Duke University
Mattie Bridgmon Eastern Washington University
Erika Kirley-Price Eastern Washington University
Bonnie Millard Eastern Washington University
Camille Moseley Eastern Washington University
Amanda Peterson Eastern Washington University
Friederike Feil Florida Atlantic University
Carrie Long Gardner-Webb University
Elizabeth Maxwell Gardner-Webb University
Christy Carr University of Georgia
Natalie Picchetti University of Georgia
Alana Clooten Georgia Institute of Technology
Tiffany Grant Georgia Institute of Technology
Jenny Sims Georgia Institute of Technology
Joanna Wright Georgia Institute of Technology
Yolanda Berryhill Georgia State University
Kendra Davis Georgia State University
Ladrica Derrico Georgia State University
Caitlin Price Georgia State University
Denice Vance Georgia State University
Becky Christensen Harvard University
Jessica Fronk Harvard University
Jessica Custance University of Hawaii, Manoa
Patricia Gauthier University of Hawaii, Manoa
Mallory Gilbert University of Hawaii, Manoa
Emily Sheppard University of Hawaii, Manoa
Samantha Weaver University of Hawaii, Manoa
Annett Wichmann University of Hawaii, Manoa
Kristina Dahlgren University of Idaho
Christie Gordon University of Idaho
Allix Lee-Painter University of Idaho
Gabriella Midles University of Idaho
Melinda Owen University of Idaho
Erin Bell Idaho State University
Amanda Janowitz Idaho State University
Cassandra Merkley Idaho State University
Lois Ricardi Idaho State University
Kasie Scott Idaho State University
Tiara Armstrong University of Illinois, Champaign
Angela Bizzarri University of Illinois, Champaign
Rachel Hernandez University of Illinois, Champaign
LaNeisha Waller University of Illinois, Champaign
Anna Lovell Illinois State University
Devon Williams Illinois State University
Kylie Hutson Indiana State University
Lauren Martin Indiana State University
Jeanne’ Middleton Indiana State University
Erica Moore Indiana State University
Caitlin Lauer Indiana University, Bloomington
Vera Neuenswander Indiana University, Bloomington
Wendi Robinson Indiana University, Bloomington
Faith Sherrill Indiana University, Bloomington
Abbie Stechschulte Indiana University, Bloomington
Crystal Martinez Indiana University-Purdue University, Fort Wayne
Crystina Martinez Indiana University-Purdue University, Fort Wayne
Fiona Nash Iona College
Jenna Caffrey Iowa State University
Britta Christofferson Iowa State University
Leia Jackson Iowa State University
Lisa Koll Iowa State University
Natasha Harvey Jacksonville University
Shaquania Lundy Jacksonville University
Morgan Bonds Kansas State University
Loren Groves Kansas State University
Laci Heller Kansas State University
Nina Kokot Kansas State University
Ali Pistora Kansas State University
Thomaida Polydorou Kansas State University
Beverly Ramos Morales Kansas State University
Annika Schoenebeck Kansas State University
Andrea Halasek University of Kentucky
Jenna Ortman University of Kentucky
Jessica Ortman University of Kentucky
Caroline Lipovsky La Salle University
Rachel Papin La Salle University
Janica Austin Lafayette College
Clerc Koenck Lamar University
Sarah Serwo Lehigh University
Rebekah Ricksecker Liberty University
Jaime Watson Liberty University
Kristen Kiefer Long Beach State University
Miia Mobley Long Beach State University
Jill Reynolds Long Beach State University
Jacqueline Hargrove Manhattan College
Alexandra MacDougall Manhattan College
Malin Marmbrandt Manhattan College
Jayne Grebinski Marquette University
Cassie Peller Marquette University
Rachel Thiel Marquette University
Toni Aluko University of Maryland, College Park
Aysha Gregory University of Maryland, College Park
Christina Smith University of Maryland, College Park
Merrecia James University of Maryland, Eastern Shore
Tanisha Wisdom University of Maryland, Eastern Shore
Christina DeRosa University of Massachusetts, Amherst
Sivan Aballi University of Memphis
Kristina Bolterstein Miami University (Ohio)
Margarita Pogorelov Miami University (Ohio)
Emily MacLeod Michigan State University
Paris Mandy Michigan State University
Zoe Pelbart Michigan State University
Sarah Price Michigan State University
Lisa Senakiewich Michigan State University
Antranette Stringer Middle Tennessee State University
Ladia Albertson-Junkans University of Minnesota, Twin Cities
Gabriele Anderson University of Minnesota, Twin Cities
Anna Arciszewska University of Minnesota, Twin Cities
Jamie Cheever University of Minnesota, Twin Cities
Heather Dorniden University of Minnesota, Twin Cities
Megan Duwell University of Minnesota, Twin Cities
Christin Kingsley University of Minnesota, Twin Cities
Challis Larson University of Minnesota, Twin Cities
Amy Laskowske University of Minnesota, Twin Cities
Ashley Nord University of Minnesota, Twin Cities
Elizabeth Podominick University of Minnesota, Twin Cities
Caitlin Roemhildt University of Minnesota, Twin Cities
Alicia Rue University of Minnesota, Twin Cities
Kari Schmidt University of Minnesota, Twin Cities
Julie Schwengler University of Minnesota, Twin Cities
Dawn Solberg University of Minnesota, Twin Cities
Hannah Studt University of Minnesota, Twin Cities
Carmia Carroll University of Mississippi
Sirdonea Davis University of Mississippi
Marlee Kevech University of Mississippi
Kasey McDaniel University of Mississippi
Sofie Persson University of Mississippi
Marrissa Harris Mississippi State University
Sara Burbee University of Missouri, Columbia
Krishna Lee University of Missouri, Columbia
Elizabeth Robe University of Missouri, Columbia
Janay Woolridge University of Missouri, Columbia
Renna Berry Missouri State University
Asher Kyger Missouri State University
Jacqueline Lindsey Missouri State University
Yaneika Malcolm Missouri State University
Terry Phillips Missouri State University
Crystal Stein Monmouth University
Baily Cox University of Montana
Kara DeWalt University of Montana
Jenna Haven University of Montana
Courtney Kosovich University of Montana
Loni Perkins-Judisch University of Montana
Kim Berg Montana State University – Bozeman
Elouise Rudy Montana State University – Bozeman
Kristen Schaffer Montana State University – Bozeman
Lena Suek Montana State University – Bozeman
Emily Tyrrell Montana State University – Bozeman
Rachel Butler University of Nebraska, Lincoln
Rachel Carrizales University of Nebraska, Lincoln
Lara Crofford University of Nebraska, Lincoln
Joslyn Dalton University of Nebraska, Lincoln
Arna Erega University of Nebraska, Lincoln
Erin Hannon University of Nebraska, Lincoln
Lindsey Maher University of Nebraska, Lincoln
Kim Shubert University of Nebraska, Lincoln
Kayla Wilkinson University of Nebraska, Lincoln
Natalie Willer University of Nebraska, Lincoln
Natalja Zarcenko University of Nebraska, Lincoln
Inger Appanaitis University of Nevada
Amanda Boice University of Nevada
Polly Smith University of Nevada
Rita Ciambra University of New Hampshire
Ariel Burr University of New Mexico
Kara Henry University of New Mexico
Kristan Matison University of New Mexico
Tiyana Peters University of New Mexico
Deanna Young University of New Mexico
Ingrid Flores New Mexico State University
Jordan Veney New Mexico State University
Morgan Stengel University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill
Lamarra Currie University of North Carolina, Charlotte
Aisha Jones University of North Carolina, Wilmington
Christine Bruins North Dakota State University
Cody Halsey North Dakota State University
Laura Hermanson North Dakota State University
Shayla Hart University of North Texas
Keisha Hornsby University of North Texas
Chrystal Mitchell University of North Texas
Rachael Runnels University of North Texas
Alana Tyler University of North Texas
Amy Bagge University of Northern Iowa
Sarah Harms University of Northern Iowa
Dani Stipe University of Northern Iowa
Kara Yahn University of Northern Iowa
Trecey Rew Northwestern State University
Jessica Tuck Northwestern State University
Kelly Langhans University of Notre Dame
Jenna Griffin Ohio State University
Chandra Krempel Ohio State University
Emily Amendola Ohio University
Amy Backel University of Oklahoma
Kristi Cook University of Oklahoma
Jessica Eldridge University of Oklahoma
Catherine Odell University of Oklahoma
Baiba Blumbaha Oklahoma State University
Tone Hjalmarsen Oklahoma State University
Deleanor Kirkpatrick Oklahoma State University
Alina Roman Oklahoma State University
Eva Tomankova Oklahoma State University
Halee Clark Oral Roberts University
Katie Stoever Oral Roberts University
Rachel Talbert Oral Roberts University
Keshia Baker University of Oregon
Nicole Blood University of Oregon
Zoe Buckman University of Oregon
Lucy Cridland University of Oregon
Brooke Giuffre University of Oregon
Kaesy Harwood University of Oregon
Kalindra McFadden University of Oregon
Kara Meeuwsen University of Oregon
Zoe Nelson University of Oregon
Sarah Pearson University of Oregon
Liddell Steele University of Oregon
Leah Worthen University of Oregon
Lauren Denfeld Oregon State University
Jesse Carlin University of Pennsylvania
Claire Kim University of Pennsylvania
Kinjal Parikh University of Pennsylvania
Gabriela Baiter Pennsylvania State University
Megan Duncan Pennsylvania State University
Bridget Franek Pennsylvania State University
Heidi Nadeau Pennsylvania State University
Clairen Percival Pennsylvania State University
Emma Schmelzer Pennsylvania State University
Cheryl Spring Pennsylvania State University
Natalie Hemphill University of Portland
Dana Morgan University of Portland
Adrienne Nova University of Portland
Caressa Sims Portland State University
Ashlee Lengacher Purdue University
Brianna Neumann Purdue University
Kara Patterson Purdue University
Mallory Peck Purdue University
Tara Turnbull Purdue University
Chelsea Bollerman Quinnipiac University
Abigail Gosling Quinnipiac University
Sarah Agara Rice University
Marissa Daniels Rice University
Chandra Ewing Rice University
Jenny Glover Rice University
Rachel Greff Rice University
Sarah Lyons Rice University
Allison Pye Rice University
Shakera Reece Rice University
Rebecca Wade Rice University
Eleanor Waite Rice University
Desarie Walwyn Rice University
Brittany Washington Rice University
Callie Wells Rice University
Brittany Dexter Sacred Heart University
Melissa Kostan Sacred Heart University
Marsha Locke Sacred Heart University
Jennifer Hartford University of San Francisco
Salli Gurganus University of South Carolina, Columbia
Aimee Kodat University of South Carolina, Columbia
Liza Todd University of South Carolina, Columbia
Sara Ackman South Dakota State University
Stephanie Duffy University of South Florida
Dana Webb University of South Florida
Lindsay Hearne Southeast Missouri State University
Bianca Stuart Southern Illinois University at Carbondale
Silje Fjortoft Southern Methodist University
Andrea Kvetova Southern Methodist University
Cheris Fletcher University of Southern Mississippi
Hana Prudilova University of Southern Mississippi
Lindsay Allen Stanford University
Alicia Follmar Stanford University
Jaynie Goodbody Stanford University
Katie Harrington Stanford University
Arianna Lambie Stanford University
Griffin Matthew Stanford University
Teresa McWalters Stanford University
Kate Niehaus Stanford University
Lauren Stewart Stanford University
Frednisha Marshall Stephen F. Austin State University
Dana Hastie Stony Brook University
Holly Van Dalen Stony Brook University
Lucy Van Dalen Stony Brook University
Jillian Drouin Syracuse University
Kaity Lambracht Syracuse University
Sheron Mark Syracuse University
Annabelle Pellerin Syracuse University
Sarah Bowman University of Tennessee, Knoxville
Alicia Essex University of Tennessee, Knoxville
Lynne Layne University of Tennessee, Knoxville
Katie Van Horn University of Tennessee, Knoxville
Phoebe Wright University of Tennessee, Knoxville
Temeka Kincy University of Texas
Nina Schvedoff University of Texas at El Paso
Keisha Walkes University of Texas at El Paso
Allison George Texas A&M University, College Station
Jessica Wingfield Texas A&M University, College Station
Sandy Wooten Texas A&M University, College Station
Julianne Kennedy Texas Tech University
Patience Knight Texas Tech University
Ozioma Okolie Texas Tech University
Kelley Schulz Texas Tech University
Kelly Robinson Towson University
Alex Becker University of Tulsa
Jennifer Mace University of Tulsa
April Montgomery University of Tulsa
Alyssa Abbott University of Utah
Josefin Berg University of Utah
Chelsea DiGrazia University of Utah
Shayla Houlihan University of Utah
Krista Larson Utah State University
Stacie Lifferth-Dorius Utah State University
Erin Stratton Utah State University
Kathryn Thatcher Utah State University
Valerie Kazmer Vanderbilt University
Corinne DiPietro University of Vermont
Carmen Lagala University of Vermont
Makalia Griffith Villanova University
Liz Haglund Villanova University
Callie Hogan Villanova University
Frances Koons Villanova University
Akilah Vargas Villanova University
Amy Bilmanis University of Virginia
Billie-Jo Grant University of Virginia
Katherine Read University of Virginia
Ayla Smith University of Virginia
Katie Tershel University of Virginia
Elise Birnbaum Virginia Polytechnic Institute & State University
Kristen Callan Virginia Polytechnic Institute & State University
Jessica Fanning Virginia Polytechnic Institute & State University
Tasmin Fanning Virginia Polytechnic Institute & State University
Sherlenia Green Virginia Polytechnic Institute & State University
Kelly Phillips Virginia Polytechnic Institute & State University
Natalie Sherbak Virginia Polytechnic Institute & State University
Britni Spruill Virginia Polytechnic Institute & State University
Asia Washington Virginia Polytechnic Institute & State University
Molly Kennedy Wake Forest University
Nicole Schappert Wake Forest University
Kelley Divesta University of Washington
Amanda Miller University of Washington
Trisha Rasmussen University of Washington
Lisa Egami Washington State University
McKinnon Hanson Washington State University
Meghan Leonard Washington State University
Sara Trane’ Washington State University
Marissa Tschida Washington State University
Jessica Zita Washington State University
Allyson Dean Weber State University
Sariah Long Weber State University
Haley Reeves Weber State University
Marie-Louise Asselin West Virginia University
Keri Bland West Virginia University
April Rotilio West Virginia University
Alison Spiker West Virginia University
Katelyn Williams West Virginia University
Shalyn McMichael Western Carolina University
Raquel Ramseur Western Carolina University
Temi Akojie Western Kentucky University
Sarah Lambrecht Western Kentucky University
Natalie Leeper Western Kentucky University
Eimear O’Brien Western Kentucky University
Brooke Demo Wichita State University
Ann Detmer University of Wisconsin, Madison
Caitlin Dodge University of Wisconsin, Madison
Carly Ducharme University of Wisconsin, Madison
Hanna Grinaker University of Wisconsin, Madison
Sarah Hurley University of Wisconsin, Madison
Gwen Jorgensen University of Wisconsin, Madison
Amy Lewis University of Wisconsin, Madison
Alicia Pabich University of Wisconsin, Madison
Chavon Robinson University of Wisconsin, Madison
Katrina Rundhaug University of Wisconsin, Madison
Megan Seidl University of Wisconsin, Madison
Jenny Soceka University of Wisconsin, Madison
Egle Staisiunaite University of Wisconsin, Madison
Kate Burton University of Wyoming
Elizabeth Calle Yale University
Lindsay Donaldson Yale University